Top 10 Most Prominent Scientists in World History
Scientists are very important to humanity. Thanks to the invention, research works of the new world developed today. Not every study achieves immediate results but goes through a long process that requires sacrifice and time to record.
And to compare between scientists and works with fast is also a difficult thing. However, in this article, TOP X FACT presents a list of Top 10 Scientists based on World Top Rankings . Probably it is hard to tell who is better than everyone, but they are all famous scientists in their period.
# 1 Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
The first person on the list was physicist Albert Einstein, who was born into a Jewish family. He was a German theoretical physicist, considered to be the father of modern physics and also a developer of relativity. This is considered to be the greatest achievement in his life.
Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1921. Throughout his life he published more than 300 scientific papers and 150 topics outside of science. Interestingly, the 3-year-old Einstein was able to speak and until he was eight years old – when he began to learn to read he was speechless. However, he started tinkering with science very early, from around the age of 10 he began to tinker to mechanical models and devices.
# 2 Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)
Nikola Tesla (July 10, 1856 – January 7, 1943) was an American inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer. He was born in Smiljan, Austria, and later became a citizen of the United States. Tesla was known for its revolutionary contributions in the fields of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tesla’s inventions and theoretical constructions have served as the basis of the transmitter system. alternating currents, including multiphase and AC motors, help create the Second Industrial Revolution.
Because of his eccentricity and uncanny and unexpected statements about the development of science and technology, Tesla was isolated and considered a mad scientist at the end of his life. Some of his great invention ideas were not available at the time of his death due to the lack of corresponding technology. He died at the age of 86 in a hotel in New York with a small amount of money in his pocket.
Tesla’s work was almost forgotten after his death, but since the 1990s, his name has really become famous. His last name was given as the name of the tesla induction unit in the international metric system. Tesla also designed a wireless transmission device in a tower-shaped, high-voltage tower known today as the Tesla Tower or Tesla coil.
#3 Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
Isaac Newton Jr. is a physicist, astronomer, philosopher, mathematician, theologian and alchemist, widely considered to be the greatest and most influential scientist. According to the Julius calendar, he was born on 25 December 1642 and died on 20 March 1727; According to Gregory’s calendar, he was born on January 4, 1643 and died on March 31, 1727.
His thesis on the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, describes the gravitational and three laws of Newton, which are the foundations of classical mechanics. , dominated the concepts of physics, science during the next three centuries. He argues that the motion of objects on the ground and objects in the sky is governed by the same laws of nature; By pointing out the unity of Kepler’s law of planetary motion and his theory of gravity, he completely eliminated heliocentrism and pursued scientific revolution.
In mechanics, Newton proposed the principle of momentum conservation (preservation of inertia). In optics, he discovers the diffusion of light, explaining that white light through the prism becomes multicolored.
In mathematics, Newton together with Gottfried Leibniz developed the differential and integral calculus. He also introduced the general Newtonian binomial.
In 2005, in a poll conducted by the Royal Society on the most influential person in the history of science, Newton was still considered more influential than Albert Einstein.
# 4 Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
Louis Pasteur (27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895), chemist, French microbiologist, with the findings on the principles of vaccination, microbiological fermentation. He is often known for his critical research on causes and remedies, and his discoveries have saved countless people since. He reduced the mortality rate in people with postpartum fever, creating the first vaccine for rabies and anthrax. His research contributes directly to the theory of pathogens and their applications in clinical medicine. As well known for inventing milk and alcohol preservation techniques to prevent harmful bacteria from entering, a process that is now called sterile. He is considered one of the three founders of microbiology, along with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is called ”
Pasteur played a major role in rejecting the theory of spontaneity, which was deeply rooted in the ideas of earlier scientists. He experimented that without external effects microorganisms could not grow. He demonstrated that in closed sterile vials there would be no bacterial growth but that when opened the bacteria could grow. This experiment helped him win the Alhumbert Prize.
Although Pasteur was not the first to propose the theory of pathogenesis, he developed it and conducted experiments that clearly illustrated its correctness and convince the European people that it was true.
Pasteur also had important discoveries in chemistry, most notably the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and the racemization.
He was director of the Pasteur Institute until his death, and his body was underneath the chamber in a tunnel-style Byzantine mosaic.
Although he contributed to the breakthrough achievements, his reputation was associated with much moral controversy as a scientist.
#5 Marie Curie Sklodowska (1867-1934)
Marie Curie was the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize. She was born in 1867 in Warsaw, Poland and is the youngest of five children.
Marie Curie has always been an inspiration and motivation for other female scientists to try. She was the inventor of the world’s first X-ray machine, bringing great benefits to the treatment of wounded soldiers on the battlefield. She was also called “mother of the atomic bomb” with the invention of radioactive substances.
However, beside all of her successes, her devotion and dedication in the laboratory accidentally killed the scientist. She suffered from radiation poisoning and died in 1934.
#6 Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931)
“The Witch of Menlo Park” is the way people call Edison. He was born in 1847 and is best known as the greatest inventor of history. Edison has a total of 1,093 inventions throughout his life. His famous inventions include batteries, records, cement, mining, telegraph, incandescent light, electric trains …
Edison also improved Graham Bell’s phone and invented the Kinetoscope, the first television set that could be used to watch motion pictures. He is also known for his ability to work 20 hours a day.
Edison led the digital voting system with his electronic recorder for Congress. He also suggested the idea of preserving fruit by keeping it in a vacuum. Edison was a pioneer in the idea of battery storage that Henry Ford later used in his car.
“Genius is the result of 1% intelligence and 99% hard work” is one of the most famous words of this scientist. He died in 1931.
#7 Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
Born in 1791, Michael Faraday is the son of a British blacksmith. He left school in 4th grade. After that, he started doing bookbinding and self study. It is this work that nurtures Michael Faraday’s passion for science and, in particular, the power industry.
Faraday is known for his discoveries of electrical conductivity and electromagnetic field theory, magnetization, and optical effects. This modest genius invented the electric motor and the cage effect Faraday.
Faraday’s curiosity led him to study chemistry lectures at the Royal Institution and later as a lecturer.
Faraday also published articles on polarization. He liquefied the gases and produced benzene from petroleum. He also completed the book on “Electric Experimental Research” and “Chemical History of Candles”. Faraday died in 1867.
# 8 Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Born in Pisa, Italy in 1564, Galileo was known as the father of modern science for his discoveries of astronomy and physics.
Galilee was sent by his father to study medicine, but he chose mathematics and was especially interested in astronomy. He was the first successful telescope in history. He also discovered the oscillation of the pendulum when attending a church service. The scientist also discovered the surface of the moon is not smooth but there are many holes and craters.
By its telescope, Galileus discovered four satellites orbiting Jupiter and today they are named after him. He proved what Copernicus said about the sun as the center of the universe is false. This led him to be suspected of being a heretic by the church. Galile was blind at the end of his life and suffered from a variety of illnesses. He died in 1642.
#9 Archimedes (287-212)
Considered to be the greatest mathematician of ancient times, Archimedes developed his extensive knowledge in the fields of mathematics, physics and engineering, from which he invented the great achievements, used Widely in production machinery as well as in construction and irrigation. Born in 287 BC, Archimedes is one of the few outstanding scientists in both theory and practice.
He is the founder of computational science. And also achieved many achievements in geometry, statics, physics, in which the most prominent is Acsimet’s law of fluid balance and the theory of leverage with the famous saying “Give me a fulcrum I can move the whole earth. ”
Although most of his work was burned in the library of Alexandria, its influence on modern science was enormous.
#10 Aristotle (384-322)
He was a student of Plato, a great Greek philosopher and teacher of Alexander the Great. Aristotle was also a Greek philosopher and famous ancient scientist. Born in 384 BC, in addition to philosophy, Aristotle was a biologist, moralist, political scientist and master of rhetoric and logic. He also introduced many famous physics theories.
Aristotle with his intelligence and erudition has achieved many brilliant accomplishments. However, only a portion of his writings are preserved today. Aristotle collects plant and animal specimens, then classifies them according to species characteristics and eventually creates a standard for biology.
Aristotle has also built a method of measuring and estimating quite accurately the size of the earth. He explained the formation of life-forms through his study of flora and fauna from simple to complex.